According to Anta and Perez (2004), 44 communities have set aside conservation areas comprising a total of 175,000ha. In a subsequent study, Anta (2007) identifies only 42 certified community reserves (covering 91,318ha) and 90 voluntary conservation areas (covering 265,720ha). Bray et al (2008) refer to 236 ‘informally protected’ community areas in Oaxaca, covering an estimated 240,000ha of forestlands. While many areas relate to local conservation efforts that are explicitly recognized by communities, governmental agencies, non- governmental organizations (NGOs) or academics, others fall under different land uses. Despite this somewhat confusing picture, two things are clear about ICCAs in Oaxaca. Firstly, there are far more of these areas here than in any other Mexican state.